|Position Paper of the People's Republic of China At the 65th Session of the United Nations General Assembly|
| 2010-09-21 00:08
I. The Role of the United Nations (UN)
The international situation continues to undergo profound and complex changes. Multi-polarity and economic globalization are deepening. Peace, development and cooperation represent both the more powerful trend of the times and the stronger aspiration of the countries of the world. World economy witnesses a slow, unbalanced and multi-speed recovery. Global issues such as climate change, energy security and public health are still prominent with imbalances in development becoming even worse. Regional hotspot issues keep emerging and local disturbances crop up from time to time, making the security situation more complex and diverse. There are multiple destabilizing factors and uncertainties in the world, posing a host of new difficulties and challenges to world peace and development.
The UN, as the most universal, representative and authoritative inter-governmental organization, is the most important platform to practice multilateralism. Since its founding, the UN has played a significant and irreplaceable role in upholding world peace, promoting common development and facilitating international cooperation. China always values the status and role of the UN and upholds the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. China supports the UN, under the current circumstances, in further harnessing its advantages and taking effective actions to coordinate international efforts in response to global threats and challenges and continuing to play a central role in international affairs.
II. UN Reforms
China supports necessary and reasonable reforms by the UN in the light of the developments in the international situation to enhance its authority and efficiency and strengthen its capacity to cope with new threats and challenges. The reforms should lead to increased voice and greater role of developing countries in the UN affairs. Since 2005, the UN has taken a series of reform measures and achieved important outcomes. But progress thus far still falls short of the expectations of Member States. The UN reforms should be comprehensive and wide-ranging and deliver tangible results in the three major fields of security, development and human rights. Going forward, the international community should build on the existing achievements and adhere to extensive and democratic consultation as a means to push for comprehensive reform across the fields, with special attention to increasing development input so as to achieve the Millennium Development Goals on schedule for the benefit of developing countries.
Reform of the Security Council is part and parcel of the UN reforms. China supports the Security Council in enhancing its authority and efficiency and better fulfilling its responsibilities for maintaining international peace and security bestowed on it by the Charter of the United Nations through reform. The priority of the reform should be increasing the representation of developing countries, African countries in particular. It is important to continue the extensive and democratic consultation to accommodate the interests and concerns of all parties, seek a package solution and reach the broadest possible consensus. China is ready to work with all countries to ensure that the reform of the Security Council will be carried out in a way that serves the overall interests of the UN and the solidarity of its Member States.
III. Security Sector
1. UN Peacekeeping Operations
UN peacekeeping operations are an important and effective means in maintaining international peace and security. The peacekeeping operations, with an ever expanding scale and broader mandate, are facing more and more challenges. China is a strong supporter of and active participant in the UN peacekeeping operations. China supports reasonable and innovative reform of peacekeeping operations on the basis of the three principles put forward by the former UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold. Such reform should prioritize strategic designing, enhance communication and coordination with the host countries, improve logistics mechanisms, optimize resource allocation and increase the effectiveness and efficiency of peacekeeping operations and the level of their deployment, planning and management. At the same time, the parties concerned should place greater emphasis on better coordination between peacekeeping, peacemaking and peacebuilding. China calls upon the UN to continue to enhance, as a priority, cooperation with regional organizations in peacekeeping, focusing on, in particular, the needs of African countries.
Peacebuilding involves the entire UN system. The Peacebuilding Commission (PBC), an important outcome of the UN reforms, is the first agency within the UN system entrusted with coordinating post-conflict rebuilding and has a unique status and an important role to play. China supports as always UN's leading role in post-conflict rebuilding and the efforts of the PBC and the Peacebuilding Fund (PBF). Going forward, the PBC should further improve its institution-building, strengthen coordination with other UN agencies, enhance partnership with the countries involved and make better use of the PBF. The General Assembly, Security Council and ECOSOC should all make good use of their respective advantages to support the work of PBC.
3. Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict
China is deeply concerned about the life and property of civilians affected and threatened by armed conflicts and urges the parties concerned to abide by the international humanitarian law and the relevant Security Council resolutions in good faith and give full protection to civilians caught up in armed conflicts.
The responsibility to protect civilians rests first with the government of the country involved under the Charter of the United Nations and the international humanitarian law. When providing assistance, the international community and external organizations should adhere to the principles of impartiality, neutrality and objectiveness, seek the consent of the recipient countries, fully respect their sovereignty and territorial integrity and refrain from interfering in local political disputes or impeding the peace process.
The protection of civilians should be incorporated into the political process aimed at peaceful solution to conflict. It should also be given priority in post-conflict peace-rebuilding. Relevant UN agencies should strengthen coordination and forge synergy for this purpose.
China supports combating terrorism in all its manifestations. The international community should, when fighting against terrorism, act on the Charter of the United Nations, the international law and other universally recognized norms governing international relations and give full play to the leading and coordinating role of the UN and its Security Council.
China supports the active role of the Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee and the General Assembly Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force in coordinating counter-terrorism efforts among countries. China endorses and takes an active part in the drafting of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism, and hopes all parties will continue consultation in a constructive and cooperative spirit and reach consensus at an early date.
China stands for a holistic approach which addresses both the symptoms and root causes of terrorism. By making full use of its advantages, the UN can play an active role in eliminating poverty and other root causes of terrorism, promote dialogues between civilizations and assist developing countries in counter-terrorism capacity building. China opposes the linkage of terrorism to certain countries, ethnic groups, religions or civilizations and is against double standards.
China, as a long-time, active participant in international cooperation against terrorism, stands ready to enhance exchanges and cooperation with various parties and work for new progress in international counter-terrorism cooperation with a view to maintaining regional and international peace and stability.
5. Situation on the Korean Peninsula
The current situation on the Korean Peninsula remains complex and sensitive. A Korean Peninsula that enjoys peace, stability, progress and prosperity serves the common interests of countries in the region, China included, and the rest of the international community. China hopes that the parties concerned will adopt a long-term perspective, solve relevant issues through dialogue and consultation, continue to push forward the Six-Party Talks, and work together for peace and stability on the Peninsula and lasting peace and tranquility in the region.
6. The Myanmar Issue
China hopes to see stability in Myanmar and national reconciliation through consultation between the parties in the country and a successful general election for realization of democracy and development. The Myanmar issue is, in essence, a country's internal affair. The international community should provide constructive assistance to Myanmar to create an enabling environment for a successful nationwide general election as well as gradual progress in political reconciliation, democracy and development. Imposing sanctions and exerting pressure will not help solve the issue. China supports the efforts of the good offices of the UN Secretary-General and his Special Adviser.
7. The Afghan Issue
The situation in Afghanistan concerns peace and stability in the region and beyond as well as the smooth progress of the international counter-terrorism efforts. Despite positive progress, the reconstruction process in Afghanistan still faces numerous challenges. To succeed, it requires, first and foremost, the determined efforts of the Afghan government. It also calls for strong support from the international community.
China has consistently supported and actively participated in Afghanistan's peaceful reconstruction. China applauds the formulation of the Afghanistan National Development Strategy, supports the priority programs it has identified, supports further implementation of the Afghanistan Compact and the Kabul Process, and respects the leading role of the Afghan government and people in advancing this process. We call on the international community to continue to devote attention to and make inputs in Afghanistan and intensify coordination and cooperation. China supports the UN in continuing to play a leading role in resolving the Afghan issue.
8. The Iranian Nuclear Issue
China supports upholding the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and maintaining peace and stability in the Middle East. China is of the view that Iran, as a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), is entitled to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and at the same time obliged to fulfill relevant international obligations.
China stands for negotiated settlement of the Iranian nuclear issue through dialogue. The parties concerned should step up diplomatic efforts to facilitate an early resumption of talks and work together to push for positive progress in the talks with a flexible and pragmatic attitude.
China has long been committed to encouraging dialogue for peace and will continue to play a constructive role in pushing for the peaceful settlement of the Iranian nuclear issue.
9. The Middle East Issue
China has always supported the Middle East peace process. It is China's long-held position that the parties concerned in the Middle East issue properly solve their disputes through negotiation on the basis of relevant UN resolutions, the principle of "land for peace", the Arab Peace Initiative and the Middle East Roadmap for Peace with the ultimate goal of establishing an independent Palestinian state and achieving normalization of relations between Israel and all Arab countries.
Peaceful negotiation is the only right way leading to a solution to the Middle East issue. We hope Palestine and Israel will remain committed to negotiation and advance the peace talks in an earnest and responsible manner. The processes between Syria and Israel and between Lebanon and Israel are important components of the Middle East peace process and deserve equal attention and commitment. China will work together with the international community for a just, comprehensive and enduring settlement of the Middle East issue.
10. The Issue of Sudan
China supports the North-South peace process in Sudan and stands for proper settlement of disputes through dialogue and consultation on the basis of mutual understanding and accommodation and comprehensive implementation of the North-South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). China notes that CPA stresses the importance of making unification attractive and no prejudging of Southern Sudan referendum results by any party. The international community should fully respect Sudan's sovereignty as well as the will and choice of the Sudanese people and ensure overall peace and stability in Sudan and the region as a whole.
China supports the political settlement of the Darfur issue and maintains that the role of the UN-AU-Sudan tripartite mechanism should be brought into full play as the main channel and the "double-track" strategy should be advanced to promote balanced progress in peacekeeping deployment and political negotiation. What is particularly important is to encourage major factions in Darfur to join the political negotiation process at an early date. At the same time, it is imperative to help Sudan improve the humanitarian and security situation and realize peace, stability and development in Darfur as soon as possible.
China takes the issue of "impunity" seriously. However,we are gravely concerned about the move by the International Criminal Court against Sudanese President Bashir. We call on the international community to value and respect the position reiterated by the African Union Summit in July 2010. We believe the measures taken on the Darfur issue should facilitate stability in Sudan and proper settlement of the Darfur issue.
China has made efforts to facilitate the settlement of the issue of Sudan. In Southern Sudan, China has provided 66 million RMB yuan in gratis assistance, helped with human resources training and contributed to local development. China has provided Darfur with 180 million RMB yuan worth of humanitarian and development assistance and contributed US$2.3 million and US$1 million to the AU and UN trust funds respectively. China has also actively participated in the UN Mission in the Sudan and the AU-UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur. China will continue to work for the proper settlement of the issue of Sudan.
11. The Issue of Somalia
China is concerned about the situation in Somalia and hopes that the parties concerned in Somalia will put the interests of the country and its people above everything else and solve their disputes through dialogue and consultation so as to bring about peace and stability at an early date. China supports the efforts of Somalia's Transitional Federal Government to seek national reconciliation and those of the African Union and other regional organizations to advance the peace process in Somalia. China calls on the international community to render greater support to the Transitional Federal Government and AU's peacekeeping operations in Somalia. In recent years, China has on many occasions provided assistance to the Transitional Federal Government and AU's peacekeeping operations in Somalia. We will continue to work with the international community to play a constructive role in moving forward the peace process in Somalia.
Despite recent progress in international cooperation on the fight against piracy off the coast of Somalia, the threat of pirate attacks is far from being eliminated and stronger coordination and cooperation are needed. China supports anti-piracy efforts off the coast of Somalia in accordance with international law and relevant Security Council resolutions and has engaged in international cooperation to safeguard shipping order and safety in the Somali waters. At the same time, the international community should lay stress on removing the root causes of piracy, help Somalia achieve peace and stability at an early date and help strengthen capacity building in Somalia and other littoral countries.
12. The Kosovo Issue
It is the common objective of the international community to properly resolve the Kosovo issue and build a Kosovo where diverse ethnic groups live together in harmony. The best way to resolve the issue of Kosovo's status is for the Serbian government and the Kosovo authorities to reach a mutually acceptable solution through negotiation within the framework of relevant Security Council resolutions. This is also what the international community should continue to work for.
Respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity is a fundamental principle of the contemporary international legal regime and constitutes the basis for the contemporary international legal order. China respects Serbia's sovereignty and territorial integrity and takes note of the advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice on the Kosovo issue. We believe that the advisory opinion is no obstacle to a proper settlement to the issue through negotiation between the parties concerned on the basis of relevant Security Council resolutions.
IV. Development Issues
1. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
The UN MDGs serve as the framework for international development cooperation. The international community has made some progress in implementing the MDGs over the past decade. But it remains a long and uphill journey worldwide to meet the goals on schedule by 2015.
The UN will hold a High-level Event in September to discuss ways to realize the MDGs before 2015 and formulate action strategies accordingly. The international community should see this as a good opportunity to consolidate political consensus so as to achieve positive results that are operable and deliverable. To this end, the international community should encourage and support countries in taking development paths that suit their national realities and exploring growth patterns that will achieve development and reduce poverty. They should also strive to build a global development partnership of equality, mutual benefit and win-win progress. Strengthening and improving the UN MDGs working mechanisms calls for better coordination and progress assessment of the various goals as well as monitoring the implementation of international development aid. The international community needs to show determination to act decisively, and take pragmatic and effective measures, to create favorable external environment for developing countries, and help them, especially African countries to realize the MDGs at an early date.
2. Africa's Development
Development is a pressing and arduous task facing Africa. The international community, developed countries in particular, should continue to offer more support and help to Africa, effectively honor their commitments of aid for Africa, and enhance African countries' capacity for self-development through opening markets, transferring technologies and increasing investment and other measures. They should assist Africa in upholding and consolidating peace and stability, respect African countries' independent choice of development patterns and provide support for African countries' development. They should push for a just and equitable new international political and economic order so as to create favorable external conditions for Africa's development. They should encourage South-South cooperation as a useful supplement to North-South cooperation.
China is always committed to peace and development in Africa. In the past few years, although seriously impacted by the international financial crisis, China has earnestly implemented various aid and cooperation measures, increased assistance to Africa by a large margin, reduced or canceled debts owed by the heavily indebted poor countries and the least developed countries in Africa, and maintained trade and investment levels. At the Fourth Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation last November, the Chinese government announced a host of policy measures in support of African development. China is earnestly delivering on those commitments to make sure African countries and people benefit from them at an early date. China is ready to work with African countries and the international community to continue its contribution to the development of Africa.
3. Food Security
Food security is the foundation of economic growth and social stability and an important prerequisite for the independence of a country and peace in the world. Food security is in essence a development issue; therefore, the international community should approach and deal with food security from the perspective of the survival and common development of mankind, and make concerted efforts to safeguard global food security. In this connection, China proposes the following:
– Increase input in agriculture and improve grain production in order to safeguard food supply and maintain an overall balance between grain supply and demand.
– Advance institutional reform and improve the governance system. The establishment of a global food security governance mechanism and security system that is equitable, practical, balanced and durable should be encouraged, and the global grain production, reserve and distribution should become more equitable and sustainable.
– Bear in mind the long-term and overall interests, push for positive results at the Doha Round agricultural negotiation, and foster an enabling international environment for developing countries in trade, finance, intellectual property rights and other fields related to agricultural products.
– Take a holistic view and achieve all-round and balanced development. Food security is closely related to economic growth, social progress, climate change and energy security. The international community should take a comprehensive approach to ensure sustainable food security.
4. Energy Security
Energy security bears closely on the growth of the world economy and the well-being of people around the world. In the aftermath of the international financial crisis, upholding global energy security is of special significance to the global efforts to effectively tackle the crisis and push for the full recovery and long-term development of the world economy.
To this end, the international community should work to stabilize energy price and prevent excessive speculation to meet the energy demand of countries, developing countries in particular. We should improve energy mix, promote the development of new energy and renewable energy and related cooperation, build up an R&D and dissemination system for advanced energy technologies and strengthen technology transfer and financial support to developing countries. We should coordinate international cooperation in energy and development and assist developing countries in growing their economies and improving people's livelihood through poverty alleviation programs based on energy development.
5. Climate Change
Climate change, a major challenge facing today's world, needs to be addressed through international cooperation. Climate change is primarily caused by developed countries' historical cumulative emissions over several centuries and their current high per capita emissions. Developed countries bear unshirkable responsiblity for climate change and they should continue to take the lead in emission reduction, and honor their obligations of providing financial resources and technology transfers to developing countries set forth in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol. Developing countries are the main victims of climate change. Facing the pressing tasks of development and poverty eradication, they will nonetheless contribute their part to the joint efforts to cope with climate change by embarking on the road of sustainable development.
In essence, climate change is a development issue, and should be addressed in the context of sustainable development. In the international climate change cooperation, the principles of equity and "common but differentiated responsibilities" should be observed and the role of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol as the main channel of international cooperation should be upheld. The stage of development and level of economic and social development of the developing countries is hugely different from that of the developed countries. Therefore, developing countries will take voluntary, appropriate mitigation actions supported by finance and technology transfer from the developed countries,in the context of sustainable development which is in essence different from the quantified reduction obligation of the developed countries, and this is in line with the fundamental principle of the UNFCCC and relevant provisions of the Bali Roadmap.
To push for positive outcome at the UN climate change conference scheduled for the end of the year in Cancun, Mexico, parties concerned should build on the achievements of the Copenhagen Conference and move in the right direction as mandated by the Bali Roadmap, fully respect the developing countries' development stages and rights, and translate the related provisions of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol into reality. We hope the developed countries will fully demonstrate political sincerity, fulfill their obligations and honor their commitments in good faith, and make positive contribution to the international cooperation on tackling climate change.
The Chinese government values the positive role of the UN in promoting international cooperation on climate change. China is ready to take an active and constructive attitude and engage other parties in thorough and candid exchanges of views on major issues so as to breathe new life into the international cooperation on climate change.
6. South-South Cooperation
For developing countries, South-South cooperation is an important channel to draw on the strength of each other and realize common development, as well as an important means to help each other to address development challenges. In recent years, South-South cooperation has achieved positive progress, generating active trade and investment among the developing countries. Some new mechanisms and initiatives have been launched among developing countries, injecting new vitality into South-South cooperation.
China believes that there should be vigorous consultation and coordination on major international issues between the developing countries, where they could coordinate their actions to uphold their legitimate rights and interests. They should, in the spirit of equality and mutual benefit, continue to explore new channels, content and models of cooperation in the light of their own needs and the evolving situation. They should also enhance coordination and make full use of multilateral mechanisms. Due to the impact of the international financial crisis, the development environment the developing countries find themselves in is hardly optimistic. In such circumstances, it is even more imperative for developing countries to strengthen South-South cooperation to meet challenges and achieve the sound and sustained development of their economies.
7. Financing for Development
The inadequate financing for development has always been a major impediment to international development. This issue becomes more prominent against the serious impact of the global financial crisis on low-income countries.
The pressing task is to establish a sound global development partnership featuring equality, mutual benefit and win-win results, implement the Monterrey Consensus, and ensure that the MDGs are met on schedule. China calls for efforts in the following five key areas. First, increase the resources and strengthen the institutions of development. Second, developed countries should deliver on their commitments to 0.7% of the gross national income for official development assistance (ODA) and further reduce or cancel debts owed by the developing countries and open markets to them. Third, endeavor to reduce the damage of the financial crisis on the developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, and take concrete actions to help them maintain financial stability and economic growth. Fourth, curb trade protectionism and push the Doha Round negotiations to achieve the development objectives at an early date. Fifth, create favorable external development environment for developing countries, and oppose implementing economic, commercial, and financial blockade measures against developing countries arbitrarily.
8. Doha Round Negotiations
Success in the Doha Round negotiations will be in the interests of all parties concerned, as it will help increase the level of openness in international trade, curb trade protectionism, and promote world economic recovery and sustainable development.
China has always committed itself to building a fair, equitable and non-discriminatory multilateral trading regime and taken a constructive and positive approach to the Doha Round negotiations. We stand for an early resolution of the outstanding issues follow the principle of "consistent with its mandate, locking in the progress already made and basing the negotiations on the existing texts",and work for a comprehensive and balanced conclusion to the Doha Round.
Doha Round is the development round and should fully accommodate the interests and concerns of developing countries, particularly the least developed countries and truly reflect the special and differential treatment for them.
9. Reform of the International Financial System
The international financial crisis fully exposed the deficiencies and inadequacies of the existing global economic governance system. It is in the interest of the international community to strengthen global economic governance and build an institutional framework conducive to the long-term, healthy and stable development of the world economy. The consensus is to make necessary reforms to the existing international financial system and establish a fair, equitable, inclusive and well-managed international financial system. China has the following proposals.
– Improve the international financial governance system, accelerate the process of the reform of the international financial institutions, increase the representation and voice of emerging markets and developing countries, and ensure that the quantitative target of IMF quota reform is met before the G20 Summit in Seoul.
– Improve the international financial supervisory and regulatory system, strengthen surveillance on the developed economies having important financial centers and their macro-economic policies, strengthen regulation and oversight over financial institutions of systemic importance and credit rating agencies, strengthen supervision over the capital flows across borders and formulate globally consistent accounting codes.
– Improve the international monetary system, improve the reserve currency issuing regulatory regime and maintain relative stability of exchange rates of major reserve currencies.
V. Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-proliferation
China has consistently attached importance to and supported international arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation efforts and stood for the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of all weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) including nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.
China is firmly opposed to the proliferation of WMDs and their means of delivery, and earnestly and strictly fulfills its international obligations and commitments. To attain the goal of non-proliferation, countries should commit themselves to fostering an international and regional security environment featuring mutual trust and cooperation, eliminate the motives and causes of proliferation of WMDs, stick to political and diplomatic settlement of non-proliferation issues, earnestly maintain and strengthen the international non-proliferation regime, strike a balance between non-proliferation and peaceful use of science and technology, and discard double standards.
China has consistently stood for and actively advocated the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons. China firmly adheres to a defensive nuclear strategy and upholds its commitment that it will not be the first to use nuclear weapons at any time and under any circumstances and that it will not use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones under any condition. China has persistently exercised the utmost restraint with regard to the scale and development of its nuclear weapons. China does not deploy any nuclear weapons in other countries, does not join any form of nuclear arms race, and will continue to keep its nuclear force at the minimal level required for national security needs.
China firmly supports the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and is actively promoting its early entry into force. China supports the Conference on Disarmament in concluding a comprehensive and balanced program of work as soon as possible, launching negotiations on the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty at an early date, and beginning substantive discussions on the prevention of an arms race in outer space, security assurances to non-nuclear-weapon states, and other agenda items.
China always maintains that the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is the cornerstone of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime. China welcomes the positive outcome of the 2010 NPT Review Conference and hopes that all parties can make joint efforts to implement earnestly the Final Document of the Conference. Under the current circumstances, the parties should continue to uphold and strengthen the universality, authority and effectiveness of the NPT so that it will play a greater role in preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons and promoting nuclear disarmament and the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
China attaches importance to the issue of nuclear security, opposes nuclear terrorism, supports closer international cooperation and welcomes the progress made in this regard at the Nuclear Security Summit in Washington, DC.
China supports the purposes and objectives of the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Biological Weapons Convention, fully and strictly fulfilling the obligations under the two Conventions and backing the enhancement of their universality. Meanwhile, China calls on countries in possession of chemical weapons or having abandoned chemical weapons on the territories of other countries to intensify efforts to speed up the destruction of chemical weapons.
China has consistently stood for the peaceful use of outer space and opposed weaponization of and an arms race in outer space. Formulating relevant international legal instruments through negotiation is the best way to safeguard enduring peace and security in outer space.
China attaches importance to the issue of information security and supports the UN in playing a leading role in this regard, having participated in the work of the successive UN Groups of Governmental Experts constructively. China welcomes the conclusion of the Final Report by the UN Group of Governmental Experts on the issue of information security for the first time and believes that it is conducive to the international efforts to jointly respond to the threats and challenges in the field of information security.
China attaches importance to military transparency and has been committed to enhancing mutual trust in the military field with other countries. In 2007, China joined the UN Standardized Instrument for Reporting Military Expenditures and returned to the UN Register of Conventional Arms. China supports and will actively participate in the work of the UN Group of Governmental Experts on the Standardized Instrument for Reporting Military Expenditures.
China attaches importance to the humanitarian issues in the field of arms control and actively commits itself to enhancing the universality and effectiveness of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Protocols. China ratified in April 2010 the Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War annexed to CCW, and has participated in the negotiation of the CCW Group of Governmental Experts on cluster munitions constructively. China has actively engaged in international de-mining assistance and assisted relevant countries in getting rid of landmines. China supports the international efforts on combating illicit trade in small arms and light weapons and earnestly implements the United Nations Program of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects and the International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons.
VI. Human Rights
Governments of all countries in the world are duty-bound to promote and protect human rights in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and relevant provisions of the international instruments on human rights, taking into account their respective national conditions. The international community should recognize that all human rights are indivisible and attach equal importance to the realization of the economic, social and cultural rights, the civil and political rights, as well as the right to development. Due to different national conditions, countries have taken different approaches and adopted different models on human rights. It is undesirable to impose one uniform model in the promotion and protection of human rights.
The Chinese government is an active advocate of international cooperation in the field of human rights. We stand for dialogue and cooperation on the basis of equality and mutual respect to address differences on the issue of human rights and enhancing mutual understanding and learning for common development. We oppose politicizing human rights issues and adopting double standards.
China takes part in the work of the UN Human Rights Council with a constructive attitude and is ready to work with other parties to ensure that the Council seizes the opportunity of its review to increase efficiency and address human rights issues in a fair, objective and non-selective manner.
VII． Social Issues
1. Transnational Crimes
Rampant transnational crimes like production and trafficking of illicit drugs, trafficking in persons, money laundering and corruption, often connected with terrorist activities, pose serious threats to economic development and public order in various countries and present challenges to regional stability and even world peace.
Strengthening international cooperation to prevent and combat transnational organized crimes is not only the common need of the international community for maintaining peace and security but also a shared, unshirkable responsibility of all countries. The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime is an important document in the fight against transnational crimes. The international community should, in accordance with the purposes and spirit of the Convention, earnestly fulfill their obligations under the Convention, show mutual respect and conduct cooperation on an equal footing. Developed countries should take the concerns of developing countries seriously and avoid becoming safe havens for the corrupt.
HIV/AIDS is a serious human health hazard and an impediment to the economic and social development of all countries. To prevent and control HIV/AIDS is an urgent task of the international community and an important aspect in achieving the MDGs.
The international community, especially the developed countries, should do more to help the developing countries strengthen their capacity of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and other international institutions should increase coordination and play an even greater role in helping developing countries fight HIV/AIDS.
The Chinese government has taken a host of measures to prevent and control HIV/AIDS and worked hard to increase the level of rights protection of those living with HIV/AIDS and strengthen the awareness of the whole of society to care for HIV-infected people and AIDS patients. China takes an active part in international cooperation on HIV/AIDS and is ready to continue to work with the international community to reduce the harm of HIV/AIDS.
3. Public Health Security
Public health security bears on the health and safety of people of all countries. To ensure global public health security is a shared responsibility of the international community. Governments of all countries should continue to enhance public health capacity building in order to provide a strong guarantee for human health and promote coordinated and sustainable economic and social development.
The Chinese government puts the people first, attaches great importance to public health and is now deepening the reform of the medical and healthcare system. China is ready to make joint efforts with all parties and relevant international organizations to strengthen exchanges and sharing of information, experience and technology and deepen cooperation to better tackle global public health challenges and enhance people's physical and mental health.
Corruption affects the economic and social development of every country and is a common concern of the international community. To strengthen international cooperation against corruption and encourage countries to exchange anti-corruption experience are conducive to the anti-corruption efforts of all countries and regions.
The United Nations Convention Against Corruption, the first international legal instrument on fighting corruption worldwide, sets the legal principles and rules applicable to all countries in their joint efforts to deal with and prevent corruption. All countries should earnestly strengthen international cooperation against corruption on the basis of mutual respect for sovereignty, equality and mutual benefit. The implementation mechanism should focus on playing a constructive role, assisting and promoting the implementation of the Convention and facilitating international cooperation between State Parties. State Parties should strengthen the political will to participate in international cooperation against corruption and reduce the limitations on extradition and asset recovery under domestic laws and procedures. Technical assistance should be provided to developing countries without any political strings attached to help them build the capacity for implementing the Convention.
VIII. UN Financing
The smooth operation of the UN requires a stable financial foundation. All member states of the UN should, in accordance with the spirit of the Charter of the United Nations and the principle of "capacity to pay" set out in UNGA resolutions, continue to earnestly fulfill their financial obligations to the UN by paying assessments for both regular budget and peacekeeping operations on time and in full, and without conditions, to ensure a solid and stable financial footing for the UN.
The efficiency of the use of UN resources should be further enhanced through integration of resources and programs with full consideration and accommodation given to the legitimate concerns and demands of developing countries.
Member states should step up coordination and communication to improve work efficiency and give more guidance to the Secretariat in program coordination, finance and budget.
IX. Rule of Law
1. The Rule of Law at the National and International Levels
It is a shared goal of all countries to achieve the rule of law at the national and international levels. Countries are entitled to independently choose the models of rule of law that are suitable for their national conditions and can learn from each other's model for common development. To strengthen international rule of law, it is necessary to uphold the authority of the Charter of the United Nations, strictly abide by the well-established principles and rules of international law, adhere to the consistent application of international law, avoid double standards, improve international law-making process and promote democracy in international relations.
2. Combating Impunity
China condemns all forms of crime, supports the efforts of all countries and encourages international cooperation to eliminate impunity. The international efforts to eliminate impunity in conflict areas should be in line with the goal of protecting the well-being of all people in the conflict areas. They should not disrupt the ongoing peace process in those areas or hamper the efforts in those areas to promote national reconciliation and build enduring peace. The issue of impunity can only be better addressed with relaxation of tension and political stability in related regions.
3. The International Court of Justice
China supports an enhanced role of the International Court of Justice in the peaceful settlement of international disputes and supports the Court in improving its way of work. China hopes that the Court will play a positive role in safeguarding a stable international order and upholding justice. The right of each country to freely choose the method of peaceful settlement of disputes should be respected.
4. The International Criminal Court
China supports the establishment of an independent, impartial, effective and universally recognized international criminal institution to punish the most serious international crimes. The work of the International Criminal Court should serve the purpose of promoting international peace and security and safeguarding the well-being of mankind, and it should be pursued in coordination and cooperation with other international mechanisms and in a way that does not impede or jeopardize the relevant peace processes. China will continue to pay close attention to the work of the International Criminal Court.
5. Oceans and the Law of the Sea
Maritime harmony is part and parcel of building a harmonious world of lasting peace and common prosperity. To establish and maintain a harmonious international order on the sea, we advocate the following:
First, strike a balance between rational utilization and scientific conservation of the sea. With a view to achieving harmony between man and the sea, while utilizing the sea in a sustainable manner for the benefit of mankind, we should also strengthen conservation.
Second, make an equitable distribution of maritime interests and share the responsibility of conservation. The particularity and concerns of developing countries, especially of the least developed countries and small island states, should be given special attention.
Third, strike a balance between the rights of coastal states and the overall interests of the international community. The outer limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles should be delineated in a scientific and reasonable manner. While ensuring the rights that coastal states are entitled to under the international law, we should also protect the international seabed area which is the common heritage of mankind.
Fourth, uphold the legal order of the sea with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea as the foundation. The Convention is an important basis for addressing new issues and challenges in the maritime field and a legal foundation for the modern maritime order. The international community should make sure that the integrity and authority of the Convention are safeguarded.